The battle within: How pathogen effectors suppress NLR-mediated immunity
Chih-hang Wu, Lida Derevnina - Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 2023
To successfully colonise plants, pathogens must circumvent the plant immune system. Intracellular immune receptors of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) class of proteins are major components of the plant immune system. NLRs function as disease resistance genes by recognising effectors secreted by diverse pathogens, triggering a localised form of programmed cell death known as the hypersensitive response. To evade detection, effectors have evolved to suppress NLR-mediated immunity by targeting NLRs either directly or indirectly. Here, we compile the latest discoveries related to NLR-suppressing effectors and categorise these effectors based on their mode of action. We discuss the diverse strategies pathogens use to perturb NLR-mediated immunity, and how we can use our understanding of effector activity to help guide new approaches for disease resistance breeding.
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